The Date. The exact period at which the Hebrews became slaves en Egypt cannot be determined with any degree of accuracy; however, we know that it was after the death of Joseph (Exodus 1:5-14).
The death of Joseph was two hundred eighty-six years after Abram's entrance into Canaan. (25 + 60 + 91 + 110 = 286) (Genesis 12:4,5; Genesis 21:5; Genesis 25:26; Genesis 41:46,53,54; Genesis 45:4-6; Genesis 47:9; Genesis 50:26).
Subtracting this from the entire time of the "sojourn" (Exodus 12:40,41; Galatians 3:17), we have the result one hundred forty-four years. (430-286 = 144).
It is probable that these figures represented more than the actual time of their servitude.
Its Bitterness. Their servitude was unparalleled for bitterness and exaction (Exodus 1:9-14). In addition to hard and unrequited labor, the heartless ruler published an edict that all of the male children should be destroyed at birth, and inaugurated vigorous methods to carry it out (Exodus 1:15-22).
Birth of Moses. He was born a slave sixty-four years after the death of Joseph (Genesis 12:4,5; Genesis 21:5; Genesis 25:26; Genesis 41:46,53,54; Genesis 45:4-6; Genesis 47:9; Genesis 50:36 Exodus 7:7; Exodus 12:40,41; Galatians 3:17). His mother concealed him for a time from the cruel emissaries of the king. Finally she placed him in an ark of bulrushes by the river's brink, and he was discovered, adopted, and educated by the daughter of Pharaoh (Exodus 2:1-10; Acts 7:17-22).